Well, yeah (more-or-less), but the solution to the problem primarily is to make the government democratic again, IMO. Your tax thing might help, but ultimately the point of democratic government is not to shift responsibility onto someone else, it’s to create an entity to wield the monopoly on violence (which someone always must) which represents the people, rather than some aristocracy. The problem is that an aristocracy has infiltrated democracy, but if it truly represented us, it actually would solve a lot of our problems. Because, as you rightly point out, you can’t actually rely on people to “vote with their dollar”, we have to collectively impose regulations which force the companies providing products to do it ethically.
As far as making certain things expensive in order to improve people’s behavior, it’s not a bad idea. I’ve thought about this with food. We have a huge obesity problem, so why not place higher taxes on unhealthy foods? I think providing incentives and penalties for things that are known to be good or bad and are not just a matter of opinion, like sugary starchy junk foods contributing to obesity for instance, is not a bad idea. I think meat producers should be forced to ethically raise and produce it as well, and if people can’t afford as much meat, well so what? Why should chunks of flesh be cheap?